Modal verbs are , among other things, used to talk about how certain we are about something in the past. They are very common in they key word transformation task of the B2 FIRST (FCE) , C1 ADVANCED (CAE) and C2 PROFICIENCY (CPE) Cambridge English exams.      

When we use a modal verb to speculate about the past , the form is MODAL + have + past participle.             

The table below will show you the clue words that will warn you that you have to use a modal to speculate about the past,  as well as the right modal to use depending on the degree of certainty that we want to express.

FREE - DOWNLOAD this table in PDF format
by clicking on the button below

speculation about the past - key word transformation - modals of speculation (table)

This book has been written to help students prepare for the Key Word Transformation part of the Use of English paper (grammar) of the Cambridge English :  B2 First exam.

It will give you a good understanding of the different grammatical structures commonly used in this part of the Use of English test, e.g. passive - active voice , conditional sentences , phrasal verbs, idioms, set phrases, comparative-superlative, causative verbs, linking words,etc.

If you want to learn how to do Key word transformation exercises effectively, this book is for you.

FREE - DOWNLOAD this sheet in PDF format by clicking on the button below

speculation about the past.pdf speculation about the past.pdf
Size : 411.794 Kb
Type : pdf
key word transformation B2,  B2 First preparation

modals of speculation , modals of deduction, Modals of speculation/deduction in the past, speculating about the past, deduction about the past, B2 first, FCE, First, Cambridge English, Cambridge English: B2, Key word transformation exercises,   modal verbs to speculate about the past, use of English part 4, B2 preparation material, Cambridge English preparation material, key word transformation typical exercises, use of english part 4, key word transformation b2, sentence transformation b2, fce key word transformation, fce sentence transformation,