SPECULATION ABOUT THE PAST - modal verbs

Modal verbs are , among other things, used to talk about how certain we are about something in the past.                       They are very common in they key word transformation task of the FCE, CAE and CPE Cambridge English exams.       When we use a modal verb to speculate about the past , the form is MODAL + have + past participle.                                The table below will show you the clue words that will warn you that you have to use a modal to speculate about the past,  as well as the right modal to use depending on the degree of certainty that we want to express.

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